migration key

你是要英語的嗎As early as in ancient China, people noticed the transfer phenomena. The spring and autumn period educator and thinker Confucius had put forward "lines", "a lot" teaching thought, he also require students to "proceeding". But until two hundred DuoNian before somebody puts forward a system of the migration theory-form training said. Form the foundation of the senses is training said psychology. Faculties, the heart of psychology thought by the will, the memory, thinking, reasoning, etc. Of faculties The heart of all sorts of function, the relatively independent company responsible. All sorts of function can be as the muscle, through the practice as to enhance ability. And, a kind of function, improve the other senses in virtually all will also be strengthened. Form the migration as training said through various training faculties to achieve respectively. In 1890 the United States psychologist James (w. James) started the earliest migration research. He and his four with his assistant for test, with two difficulty degrees and presence of similar to inspect materials before a learning is a kind of material on the study. Although their results to the number for too little chance, but with the experimental open migration research precedent.
In 1903, the Thorndike (Thorndike) to pay attention, memory and perception to identify the series of experiments, this paper presented "the same elements". The main thought of migration will previous learning is: get the specific behaviors task applied to new tasks. Two learning between tasks is migration, because they have a common between elements, but also is a common stimulate-reaction coupling. The ability of the migration for only through a lot of training and practice make the connection to strengthen. Migration is also the same transfer of connection. The same elements were later said WuWeiShi modified as common elements said, meaning only the two learning situation when common ingredients, a factor to affect another factor. The theory is a kind of mechanical migration view, can only explain the specific special mechanical migration, revealing the complex human learning transfer essence.
In 1908 the design Judd underwater hit target experimental research and found that learners migration in the learning process of principle and get principle is the main reason for the migration happened. He stressed that two learning contains before and after common principles and to the principles of learners is summarized from the migration two conditions, therefore, learners master principle, the better the more likely produce migration in new situations. The theoretical generalization of Judd broke through the thorndike elements of the same limitations, the first one will be the same elements of the range up to the more abstract theories and principles, but at the same time, to study the situation of learners common principles as the basic conditions of the migration summarized, in order to expand the scope of the migration research.
Gestalt psychologist further development of this theory, according to "the chicken cohler for" the result of the experiment put forward the conversion relation said. He think that students enlightenment two learning situation in principle the relationship between the principle, especially the relationship between method goal is to realize the fundamental conditions, migration its essence is refers to two kinds of learning situation exists a similar relationship, this is the premise of migration, and learners of the two learning situation of the common relationship is the key and intends to move at all.
In addition, rubenstein put forward the analysis concludes. He thought that the study migration is the comprehensive analysis, reveals two issues essentially the same or similar between the condition, which is to solve method, and the comprehensive analysis and summary on the basis of the general learning transfer is the true nature of produce.
These theories although emphasize that the migration of each side, but is inseparable from the general learning transfer in the role. The early migration theory reveals the migration from different aspects of some rule, to todays migration research still has important reference value. Mainly displays in: 1) learning situation factors. Early migration research a common is emphasized two learning materials before and after the similarity is migration the conditions. The thorndike emphasize two materials explicit, specific, elements of the similar. Cohler and Judd emphasize two materials of implicit and deep, whole similar, namely principle, principle and the relationship between similar. Form training emphasis on two learning said before and after required participate in psychological function is produced the similarity of migration key. Therefore, the similarity can mean two learning situation in specific content or elements of similar, can also refer to general relationship and principle of similar. Recent migration research in material design extends the connotation of similarity, but not beyond similarity principle. 2) study main body factors. Form and common elements said all training does not mention the role of the main elements in the migration, they think migration is automatic happen. The generalization of Judd theory not only think before and after the two learning contains principle, principle of similar is the condition of migration, also stresses the learners to principle, principle of generalization and analogy is the key to displace. Can say more reflect the theory of Judd migration essence. The relationship between cohler said emphasize inpidual to convert learning material contain common relationship is the enlightenment displace the fundamental condition. Although early research theory of main elements also is general, superficial, but for the development of cognitive migration research laid a foundation.

2.2 the current transfer theory
The rise of modern cognitive psychology to study the migration research produces influence. Learning theorists point of view with cognitive thoroughly discusses the conditions, the reason displace, influence factors, and try to understand the migration process the internal mechanism and laws. This occurred in cognitive psychology is the basis of new learning transfer view, namely and stating knowledge learning the corresponding cognitive structure migration theory, and procedural knowledge study corresponding produce type and strategic knowledge migration theory, the yuan should be relatively cognitive migration theory.

Cognitive structure of the migration section 2.3.1 for ammeters theory
The cognitive structure of the migration theory is based on Mr SuBoEr (D. 1968), p. Ausubel meaningful words learning theory (assimilation theory). Mr SuBoEr migration of the connotation of cognitive structure and influence in new learning (migration) the main variables, and using the cognitive structure variables to influence the new study the method for the fruitful to explore the theory and empirical research. The so-called cognitive structure variables is the knowledge structure of students mind. General speaking, it is in the mind of the concept of the students all content and organization; In narrow sense, it is the student said in a subject用谷歌瀏覽器翻譯The will of migration theory of learners
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